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Radiation safety distance

Time, Distance, and Shielding - Radiation Safet

  1. Time, Distance, and Shielding Learning Objective: Understand the concept and real-world application of Time, Distance and Shielding as it pertains to Radiation Safety. Radiation Safety is accomplished through a variety of strategies and is pertinent to several high-risk career areas
  2. Distance refers to how close you are to a radioactive source. Maximize your distance from a radioactive source as much as you can. This is an easy way to protect yourself because distance and dose are inversely related. If you increase your distance, you decrease your dose
  3. Distance: Just as the heat from a fire reduces as you move further away, the dose of radiation decreases dramatically as you increase your distance from the source
  4. Distance: Just as the heat from a fire is less intense the further away you are, so the intensity and dose of radiation decreases dramatically as you increase your distance from the source. Shielding: Barriers of lead, concrete, or water provide protection from penetrating radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons

Radiation Studies - CDC: ALAR

  1. DISTANCE EQUATION. This equation uses the inverse square law to calculate the change in dose rate when a person moves farther or closer to a point source of x or γ radiation. where, D1 and D2 = dose rate (or intensity) at positions 1 and 2, respectively; X1 and X2 = the distance from the source at positions 1 and 2, respectively
  2. imum, use arm's length
  3. Increasing the distance from the source may not be possible. Hand-held x-ray equipment must incorporate into its design physical means to protect the operator from leakage radiation with.
  4. While every WiFi router gives out different levels of radiation, a standard safe distance to avoid WiFi router radiation is between 15 and 20 feet, increased to 30 feet for children. Ideally, one should always be more than 10 feet away but the best way to test is with an EMF meter

Take the pledge to image wisely and view resources on radiation safety in adult medical imaging. Visit Image Wisely. Sign Up for News Sign Up. Follow Us. Headquarters Office. 1891 Preston White Dr. Reston, VA 20191 703-648-8900 Government Relations Office. 505 9th St., NW, Suite 910. A worker's radiation dose decreases as the worker's distance from the source increases. For gamma rays and X-rays, the radiation intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source (i.e., the inverse square law). This means increasing the distance by a factor of 2 decreases the dose rate by a factor of 4 Apply the Inverse Square law to create safe distances, times, or radiation amounts. Inverse Square law: The radiation Intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance

Protecting Yourself from Radiation US EP

  1. Distance A greater distance from the radiation source can reduce radiation exposure. The amount of radiation exposure is not inversely proportional to the distance from the radiation source, but is inversely proportional to the square of the distance [ 2, 4 ]
  2. ed. For additional information, consult the references listed at the end of this part. There are many terms of art specific to ionizing radiation and our ad
  3. Safety for specific types of radiation External beam radiation therapy. External radiation therapy is given from an outside source, involves a beam of radiation aimed at a part of the body, and affects cells in your body only for a moment
  4. Radiation Safety: 905-522-1155 ext. 33311 (ask for the Radiation Safety Officer to be paged) Distance The greater distance from other people the better. For example, doubling your distance from someone decreases exposure by a factor of ¼. Examples of increasing distance include: • Sleep alone
  5. imize exposure to ionizing radiation. Common methods include a combination of

Example: How long can a radiation worker stay in a 1.5 rem/hr radiation field if we wish to limit his dose to 100 mrem? Stay Time = 1500 mrem/hr 100 mrem = 0.067 hr = 4 minutes B. Distance The amount of radiation an individual receives will also depend on how close the person is to the source. 1 While everyone is exposed to natural background radiation, workers may also be exposed to ionizing radiation in workplaces with radiation sources.These radiation sources can pose a health risk to workers if not properly controlled. Occupational settings with ionizing radiation sources include:. Medical and dental offices (e.g., X-rays) Frequently asked questions about the safety of radiofrequency (RF) and microwave emissions from transmitters and facilities regulated by the FCC For further information contact the FCC's RF Safety Program at rfsafety@fcc.gov or 1-888-225-5322 Index (click on topic below) What is radiofrequency and microwave radiation? What is non-ionizing radiation Last week, the IAEA found radiation exceeding its safety standards in a village 40 kilometers from Fukushima. It recommended that Japan extend the hazard zone but didn't say by how much. Meanwhile. Due to these risks, the International Commission on Radiological Protection established dosage limits for radiation exposure. The maximum annual dose limit is 20 mSv for the body, 150 mSv for the thyroid and eyes, and 500 mSv for the hands [ 9 ]

Radiaition hazard and sefety in cath lab

b. Provide radiation safety rules to dental personnel including any restrictions of the operating technique required for the safe use of the particular dental X-ray equipment. c. Ascertain that dental personnel demonstrate competence in using the X-ray equipment and imaging software, and comply with the radiation safety rules. d Radiation safety training, your supervisor, or a health physicist are all good resources to determine the proper shielding for the type of radiation you are exposed to. Shielding examples are shown in the below table: increasing distance from a radiation source (very effective), or using metal or concrete shielding (less practical). 10.5. Radiation Safety Introduction These notes review the fundamental principals of radiation protection, radiation dose limits and some of the precautions and risks associated with the different imaging modalities in the hospital. Time, Distance and Shieldin

Time, Distance and Shielding ii. ALARA • contamination is found, the radiation safety officer will be notified, and the contained area will be cleaned before the worker leaves the radiation laboratory. If spillage occurs, the radiation safety officer will supervise the decontamination. Radiation Safety Training Module: Diagnostic Radiology • Halve the distance from the X ray source; dose-rate increase to 4 times the original value. More the distance from source (X-rays) -Lesser the radiation. Effect of Distance on Dose Rate-Inverse Square Law The radiation dose from the inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials must also be considered in the USDA Radiation Safety Program. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission places limits on the amount of radioactive materials that a radiation worker can take into their body over the course of a working year The radiation exposure to the patient must be the minimum required to produce good diagnostic images. For human-use units, other than fluoroscopy, the X-ray tube must be at least 30 cm (approximately 1 ft.) from the patient. The source-to-patient distance must be at least 38 cm for image-intensified fluoroscopic units Radiation safety considerations for diagnostic radiology personnel Radiographics. Jul-Aug 1999;19(4) :1037-55. For all procedures, judicious applications of time, distance, and shielding affect dose. Appropriate use includes collimating properly, optimizing beam-on time, minimizing distances between image intensifier and patient, ensuring.

Minimize Your Exposure NRC

  1. ation in the work place. The principles of time, distance and shielding apply only to external hazards. 4.1.
  2. Alpha radiation travels only a short distance (a few inches) in air, but is not an external hazard. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate clothing. Examples of some alpha emitters: radium, radon, uranium, thorium. Beta Radiation Beta radiation is a light, short-range particle and is actually an ejected electron
  3. The Importance of Radiation Protection as a Radiologic Technologist. Healthcare June 22, 2014. Everyone knows that people who work around radiation need to use some kind of radiation protection. Radiation comes in several forms and affects the body differently. The three main principles of protection are shielding, distance and time of exposure
  4. imizing the time spent close to the DXA scanner and patient during.

Distance •Know when the beam is on •Check where the tube is check where the x-rays enter the patient and will be scattered •The patient is the source of radiation. KEEP distance! •Put the tube under the table •Operators should avoid a place next to the tube •Step back from the patient, preferably behind shieldin 1.2 Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) The RSO is responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the University's radiation safety program as outlined by the Radiation Safety Committees, the University's radioactive materials license, and state and federal regulations. The RSO has authority to communicate with, enforce

Radiation Safety also will keep RSO staff informed of changes in government regulations or Institute policies. Increasing the distance from a radiation source by the use of handling devices will reduce the dose received, since exposure rate decreases as 1/r^2, where r is the distance from a point source.. The mini-c-arm device should be utilized whenever feasible in order to eliminate many of the concerns associated with use of the large c-arm device, specifically those related to cumulative radiation hazards, positioning considerations, relative distance from the beam, and the need for protective sh The principal methods to minimise radiation exposure are to: reduce the time near. increase the distance from. areas where exposure is possible, as well as reducing dust and shielding against gamma exposure. Minimising the spread of dust containing radioactive material, and monitoring for gamma hotspots are basic control methods Safety guidelines for hospital personnel and first responders to protect against radiation exposure when managing patients who have been involved in radiation incidents. Considerations involve time, distance and shielding Radiation Safety Office 541-737-2227 radiation.safety@oregonstate.edu . Introduction Training for Analytical and Cabinet X-ray users is in 3 parts: DISTANCE The greater distance between you and the x-ray unit, the lower the dose. SHIELDING The greater the shielding, the lowe

Radiation Safety Considerations for X-Ray Equipment

There are three classes of Radiation Hazards (RADHAZ): Hazard of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel (HERP) is the danger to personnel from the absorption of electromagnetic energy by the human body. Personnel hazards are associated with the absorption of RF energy above certain power levels in certain frequency bands for certain lengths of time Radiation Safety. EHS provides support for the use of radioactive materials, X-ray machines, and other sources of radiation at UT. Ionizing radiation can be hazardous if safe procedures are not followed. The mission of the radiation safety office is to minimize occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, keeping doses as low as reasonably. The essential goal of radiation safety is to prevent injury from exposure to ionizing radiation. For this reason, CFR 20, Section 20.1201, establishes the following annual or yearly occupational dose equivalent limits: Whole body (total effective dose equivalent): 5 rems Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) * Develops and oversees treatment protocols for patients with usual radiation safety risks. * Provides specific advice for patients with unusual safety risks. * Reports medical events to State Agency or to NRC. A Radiation Health Physicist may bridge the responsibilities between RSOs and Treatment Prescription an Guide for Radiation Health and Safety Program 7 | Page If the equipment is located in a large facility such as a university, technical school or hospital; consult with the Occupational Health and Safety staff responsible for designated radiation equipment. Dental x- ray equipment owned by Alberta Health Services are registered to College of.

Safe Distances for Avoiding WiFi Router Radiatio

Radiation exposure decreases rapidly as the distance between the worker and the X-ray device increases. The decrease in exposure from a point source, such as an X-ray tube, can be calculated by using the INVERSE SQUARE LAW: This law states that the amount of radiation at a given distance from a poin (Source: Federal Office for Radiation Safety, Germany 1999) Normal operating distance is given in bold The table illustrates two main points: First, the magnetic field strength around all appliances rapidly decreases the further you get away from them. Secondly, most household appliances are not operated very close to the body compliance with the radiation safety regulations outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations and the majority of state agencies. State regulationsare not uniform from state to state,and federal are revised periodically. regulations Therefore, it is recommendedthat the appropriate state andfederal radiation contro

It is also helpful to compare the risk of each test to everyday life. In Australia, the risk of dying from cancer before 85 years of age is 1 in 4 for males and 1 in 6 for females, 9 and it is not possible to separate cancers occurring due to natural radiation, medical or other causes. The additional risk from 2-view chest X-ray examination for a male, aged 20 years, is 0.001%, or 1 in 90 000 Radar systems detect the presence, direction or range of aircraft, ships or other, usually moving objects. This is achieved by sending pulses of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). Invented some 60 years ago, radar systems have been widely used for navigation, aviation, national defence and weather forecasting The FDA monitors these appliances for radiation safety issues and has received increasing reports about microwave ovens that appear to stay on—and operate—when the door is open. The FDA. 1.3 INSTITUTE RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER AND STAFF INSTITUTE RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER The Institute Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) is appointed by the Associate Vice President for Facilities. In addition to responsibilities as a committee member, the RSO directs the Radiation Safety Program. RADIATION SAFETY STAFF Under the direction of the RSO. Some exams have protective lead aprons and thyroid collars, while other exams require staff to stand a certain distance away from the imaging equipment, in what is called the safety zone, where scatter radiation is negligible. We also make all staff members wear radiation dosimeters, so we can monitor exposure levels throughout their career

The ALARA Principle: 3 Safety Measures To Follow

Radiation Safety American College of Radiolog

PPT - Introduction to Fluoroscopy & Radiation Safety

Ionizing Radiation - Occupational Safety and Health

  1. Safe distance is the distance from a source within which the irradiance for a given exposure duration does not exceed the exposure limits stated in the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines on limits of exposure to UV radiation of wavelengths between 180nm and 400nm (incoherent optical radiation)
  2. Radiation Safety for Anesthesia Providers Gillian Phillips, CRNA, MS, MSN W. Patrick Monaghan, PhD, CLS, SBB Objectives At the completion of this course, the reader should be able to: 1.Recognize the differences between ionizing and nonionizing radiation and be able to identify the medical imaging modalities using each. 2
  3. imising time in the vicinity of the source using shielding where available aviodance of internal conta
  4. This states that the dose to a given area is quadrupled be halving the distance from the radiation source. Simply put, standing back from a source of radiation reduces dose to staff. This is particularly important during interventional radiology cases when radiologists or radiographers are working close to the X-ray beam
  5. RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR ANALYTICAL AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL RADIATION MACHINES. 1. Purpose and Scope. the radiation measured at a distance of 5 centimeters from its surface is not capable of producing a dose in excess of 25 µSv (2.5 mrem) in one hour. For systems utilizing x-ray tubes, this limit shall be met at any specified.
  6. k) a plan to review your radiation Safety performance, including the performance of the protection and Safety programme itself. 2. A detailed description of an industrial radiography protection and Safety programme is provided in Section 4 of IAEA‟s Specific Safety Guide SSG-11, titled Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography (Ref. 1)
  7. Lower power RLT units I have tested output 28 mW/cm² of IR radiation at a distance of 2-3 inches (50-75 mm). High power RLT units may have triple that output power, bringing the output power.

If you find that you still have concerns, you should contact the Radiation Safety Officer at 434.982.4911. University of Virginia Policy ID:SEC-010 - Radiation Protection during Pregnancy Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure Information Sheet is an information sheet published by the Health Physics Society Dental Radiation Safety - DNA 135 at Mountain Empire Community College. Search terms All colleges MECC Scheduled Advanced Search. Showing: summer 2021. Distance Learning Restrict search to: Hybrid - In Person & Web. Interactive Classroom Video. Independent Studies. Print Based. WWW Online. WWW Online w/E-Rat EWG's 2012 guide to cell phone radiation summarizes the new research and the lack of protective government standards for phone radiation. Recommendations to consumers including taking steps to reduce their exposures to cell phone radiation by holding phones away from their bodies, using earpieces and following the other simple tips in our guide A mrem is a dose of radiation; and in SI units would be 0.02 milllisieverts (mSv) in an hour, and not more than 1 mSv in a year. Each person in the United States gets an average of 7 to 8 mSv every year from medical and natural radiation exposure. The safe separation (boundary) distance depends on (1) the intensity of the x ray or gamma.

Example Calculation 1. The intensity of radiation is 530 R/h at 5 feet away from a source. What is the intensity of the radiation at 10 feet? Rework the equation to solve for the intensity at distance 2 I 2 = I 1 x D 1 2 / D 2 2. Plug in the known values I 2 = 530R/h x (5ft) 2 / (10ft) 2. Solve for I 2 I 2 = 132.5 R/ Radiation Distance Safety Meter BME 200/300 . 1 Contents 1. then hospitalized afterwards to avoid exposing others to harmful levels of radiation. To instead be discharged immediately, a mechanism that alerts individuals (i.e. family members) of dangerous radiation exposure is required. A previous semester designed a belt that uses What are the 3 Principles of Radiation Safety? According to the CDC, radiation exposure risks can be lowered by following the three principles of radiation safety which is time, distance, and shielding. These are also known as the basic protective measures in radiation safety. Time. This refers to the amount of time spent near the radioactive.

Time: The amount of radiation exposure is directly related to the time exposed to the radiactive source. Reduce exposure by limiting the time near radiation to only what is necessary. Distance: Doubling the distance from a source of radiation reduces exposure by 75%. Increase distance from the radiation source whenever possible also increase. High radiation doses (i.e., >100 rad (1Gy)) can be potentially life-threatening, although the risk of acute death from radiation can be mitigated through prompt medical treatment. Without proper medical assistance 50% of people with radiation doses of ~400 rem (rad or 4 Gy) or higher will most likely die in 60 days

As with so many other facets of workplace safety, training plays a critical role in working around radiation. Effective safety training focuses on the three ways workers can limit their exposure to radiation: maintaining a safe distance from the source, limiting the time around the source, and using shielding to limit the exposure The source of this information is Francis Masse, director of the MIT Radiation Protection Office. Dr. Masse is a past president of the Health Physics Society and served in 1987-89 as chairman of the National Academy of Sciences panel which reviewed the exposure of soldiers to radiation from atmospheric testing in the 1940s and 1950s safety items that apply to radar: (1) the proper handling RADIATION HAZARDS Much of your radar gear (if labeled correctly) will distance with a rope or wooden cane to pull you fro Field Guide for Health and Safety Officers: Radiological Incidents, 6/2014 (NYC DOHMH) Population Monitoring and Radionuclide Decorporation Following a Radiological or Nuclear Incident (NCRP Report No. 166, 2011 American Nuclear Society: Radiation Dose Chart Health Physics Society: Radiation Exposure from Medical Diagnostic Imaging Procedures (fact sheet) Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Biological Effects of Radiation (fact sheet) National Institutes of Health Office of Research Services (Radiation Safety Committee): An Introduction to Radiation for NIH Research Subjects brochure, may be.

Inverse Square Law - Radiation Safet

Medical X-rays are characterized by quantity and quality. Quantity is the number of X-rays reaching the patient. Factors that affect the quantity of x-rays produced are: Filtration. mAs. kVp. All of the above. The Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection Regulations can be found in Pa Code, Title 25 Environmental Chapters 215-240 A. Consultation with the Radiation Safety Officer prior to continuation in clinical assignments. B. The RSO and the declared pregnant worker will review the Program's Radiation Protection Safety Guidelines, Policy 11, and the potential risks involving ionizing radiation to the developing embryo/fetus. C Safety Tips for Using UV Lamps . Types of UV Lamps . Ultraviolet (UV) radiation occupies the portion of electromagnetic spectrum from 100 to 400 nanometers (nm). The UV spectrum consists of three regions: UV-A (315-400 nm) UV-B (280-315 nm) UV-C (100-280 nm) For most people, the main source of UV exposure is the sun External Radiation -- Time, Distance and Shielding The concept of time, distance and shielding is integral in maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). TIME--Assuming that all things are equal, external radiation exposure (dose) is directly related to the duration of exposure. By reducing the time you are in a radiation field, you wil Radio Frequency Safety. Many consumer and industrial products make use of some form of electromagnetic energy. Because of its regulatory responsibilities in this area the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) often receives inquiries concerning the potential safety hazards of human exposure to radio-frequency (RF) energy

Keeping distance from 5G sources provides the best protection from 5G radiation. Measuring EMF levels to identify hotspots, EMF shielding, a healthy diet, and earthing are additional ways to enhance 5G radiation protection Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and. Distance The amount of radiation an individual receives will also depend on how close the person is to the radioactive source. Beta Particles Beta particles have a finite distance dependent onth The higher the energy the further the particle will trav Tritium: Carbon-14: 0.018 MeV: Maximum < 5 inches in air 0.15 MeV: Maximum 10 inches in ai Radiation Safety South Carolina Law requires that persons who perform diagnostic radiology procedures on animal patients be adequately trained in Distance - stand as far away from the patient during fluoro as feasible. When not assisting, stand in the control booth A survey meter is a portable handheld, electronic instrument used to detect radiation. It is recommended that a pancake type Geiger Mueller (GM) probe be used for isotopes which emit beta radiation and an energy compensated GM probe be used for gamma emitting isotopes with energies greater than 60keV. For low energy photon emitting isotopes.

Radio Frequency Radiation Symbol Label LABEL-SYM-10-aNew study links cell phone tower radiation to diabetesPractical guidance for DSE | Safety Services - UCLThe Ideal Distance for TV Viewing

Three principles for radiation safety: time, distance, and

The takeaway: Moskowitz offers an extensive list of steps you can take to reduce radiation exposure, including: 1.) Keep your distance. Keep your cellphone or cordless phone away from your body. Figure 3 . Radiation Hazards to Personnel from DoD INST 6055.11 The danger of HERP occurs because the body absorbs radiation and significant internal heating may occur without the individuals knowledge because the body does not have internal sensation of heat, and tissue damage may occur before the excess heat can be dissipated. A Individuals who need training in radiation safety principles should call the Radiation Safety Officer at 831-5860 to obtain a copy of the Radioisotope Safety Manual. A test will be scheduled after the user has reviewed the training manual. A personnel monitoring device will be ordered, if necessary, after the individual has passed the test

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Radiation Therapy Safety - American Cancer Societ

The maximum allowable radiation field for any working area is .025 Sv per hour (0.25 mR/h). The radiation dose received by an individual is a function of: the length of time spent in the radiation field; the distance from the source; and the energy of the radiation emitted. Time. Minimize exposure time. The radiation dose an individual receives. Health effects also depend on dosage, the person's distance from the radiation source, and the amount of shielding in place. Ionizing radiation first affect's a person's cells, causing cell.

Ionizing Radiation - Overview Occupational Safety and

against for asking questions about radiation safety procedures. A copy of the UWMDHS License is on file in the Radiation Safety Program office, and each laboratory should have a copy of the Guide to the Safe Use of Radionuclides at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Every perso Increase the distance between yourself and the radiation source. Report the incident to the University of Oklahoma Radiation Safety Officer, George MacDurmon (or Casey Schmitz) at 271-6121 and to the lab manager. Small electrical fires may be put out by using the fire extinguisher located in the entrance to the lab.. The key standards in this area are the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, also known as the International BSS. These standards mark the culmination of efforts that have continued over the past several decades towards the harmonization of radiation protection. Microwaves are a type of electromagnetic radiation, or waves of energy that move through space, according to the FDA. Electromagnetic radiation takes different forms, including radio waves.

RF Safety FAQ Federal Communications Commissio

This radiation safety standard, HR002:2010 Standard for radiation apparatus used to carry out radioscopy is made under section 16 of the Radiation Safety Act 1999, and establishes the minimum safety criteria for radiation apparatus used to carry out radioscopy involving the irradiation of humans Applicants who would like to learn about radiation safety and the Regulations related to the use of radiation may do so via the following courses offered by the Singapore Environment Institute. The courses most relevant to the different applicants are: L5 and L6 - Basic Ionising Radiation Safety (General) Course. Radiation Protection The three most productive means of reducing radiation exposure are: • Time: Minimizetime spent in the radiation field. Use of last-image-hold and pulse fluoro features are technical advantages in reducing the total time x-rays are produced. • Distance:Radiation dose rates increaseor decreas In general, the benefits of imaging tests far outweigh the radiation risks. The risk of dying of cancer for the average American is one in five. The additional risk of getting cancer from one CT scan is estimated to be less than one in 2,000. In my opinion, that risk is tiny for a test that could save someone's life Although radiation is commonly believed to create bizarre new mutations, data show that usually it merely increases the frequency of mutations occurring naturally in the general population.3 The.

Primary barrier thickness (lead):* mm. Area: Select Controlled Max. 50 mSv/y Controlled Max. 20 mSv/y Uncontrolled Max. 5 mSv/y Uncontrolled Max. 1 mSv/y Uncontrolled Max. 0.05 mSv/y. Distance to the source: m. Type of equipment: Select Diagnostic Therapy. Scattering surface: cm2. Distance source-scatterer: m Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used. The term radiation therapy most often refers to external beam radiation therapy. During this type of radiation, the high-energy beams come from. Any training or credentialing process should include education on radiation safety issues, proper use of fluoroscopic equipment, and control settings (, 35). In addition, biologic effects of radiation with emphasis on deterministic effects should be discussed along with detailed discussions on dose-reducing techniques