Lateral erosion definition geography gcse

Lateral erosion is one of the three different ways that rivers and streams erode their banks and beds. As the term implies, lateral erosion is the erosion that occurs on the sides, or floodplains, of a river or stream, and it is also referred to as bank erosion. The other two forms of erosion are headward erosion and downcutting erosion Learn about and revise river landforms, whether created through erosion or deposition, with GCSE Bitesize Geography (AQA) GCSE Geography Revision Pack: granite is far more resistant to erosion than soft rocks, such as clay). These processes move material at the coast and in a river. Small particles are carried along by the water. ‐Lateral erosion. Learn about and revise river processes, including erosion, transportation and deposition, with GCSE Bitesize Geography (AQA)

Learn about and revise river processes, including erosion, transportation and deposition, with GCSE Bitesize Geography (Eduqas) Fluvial processes: erosion Specification Fluvial processes involved in river valley and river channel formation: erosion (vertical and lateral) , weathering and mass movement, transportation and deposition and factors affecting these processes (climate, slope, geology, altitude, aspect) A - as the river flows downhill there is an increase in vertical erosion. The channel is shallow and narrow because there is not a lot of water in the channel. B - as the river flows into the.. 6 July 2020 / in AQA GCSE Geography, River Erosion, Rivers / by Anthony Bennett. Vertical erosion involves the wearing away and deepening of the river bed. This is mostly by hydraulic action. It is most common in the upper course of the river. Find out more about river erosion Lateral erosion. Sideways erosion by a river on the outside of a meander channel. It eventually leads to the widening of the valley and contributes to the formation of the flood plain GCSE Geography Chapter 7: Hot Deserts. 23 terms. Vetrix42 PLUS. AQA GCSE Geography: Natural Hazards. 77 terms. matty_ireland. Geography Paper 1. 94 terms.

A steep high rock face formed by weathering and erosion along the coastline Lateral Erosion. Erosion on the sides of a valley. 17 of 52. Vertical Erosion. Downward erosion of a river bed. 18 of 52. Delta. GCSE Geography - Paper 1 - T1 - Landscapes and Physical Processes. 0.0 / 5. AQA GCSE Geography mass movement the coastal zone. 4.0 / 5. Tourism. 0.0 / 5


Lateral Erosion If you take a look at a cross profile diagram of a river, then it is easy to see that rivers widen at certain points. They usually start off narrow in the upper course, so a wide river tells us that we are looking at either the middle course or the lower course GCSE Rivers Glossary. Abrasion: the pebbles being transported wear away the bed and banks of the river channel. Alluvium: rock particles (clay, silt, sand and gravel) deposited by a river. Attrition: The particles are knocked about as they are transported, and they gradually become more rounded and reduced in size.. Base Level: the mouth of the river and the point where the gradient becomes zero In the lower course, the rapid lateral erosion cuts into the neck of the meander, narrowing it considerably. Eventually, the force of the river breaks through the neck, and as this is the easiest way for the water to go, the old meander is left without any significant amount of water flowing through it GCSE Glaciated Valleys Glossary. Abrasion: erosion caused by rocks and boulders in the base of the glacier acting like a giant file scratching and scraping the rocks below. Angular Rock: a rock with sharp edges. Arête: sharp, knife-like ridge formed between two cirques cutting back. Aspect: the direction a cirque faces; south-facing cirques tend to be larger and more eroded due to greater ice. Erosion, Weathering and Deposition - How Rivers Shape The Land - GCSE Geographyhttps://imstuck.wixsite.com/revisionIn this video, we see how our landscape ha..

Lateral erosion - Sideways erosion by a river on the outside of a meander channel. It eventually leads to the widening of the valley and contributes to the formation of the flood plain. Long profile - The gradient of a river, from its source to its mouth. Vertical erosion - Downward erosion of a river bed Ox Bow lakes: Continual erosion on the outside bends, results in the neck of the meander getting narrower until the river undercuts through the neck and shortens the coarse.The current will take the path of least resistance, giving it renewed energy. The faster current will now be flowing in the centre of the channel and deposition is more likely next to the banks GCSE Geography A - Paper 1 Mark scheme 1GA0/01 Que stion number An wer Mark 1 (a) (i) B Granite The correct answer is granite as this is the only example of an igneous rock listed. Chalk and sandstone are sedimentary rocks and schist is a Lateral erosion(1) Vertical erosion(1) (1) 11 Que stion number An wer Mar Landforms of glaciated lowlands. These are generally depositional in nature and are brought by both continental ice sheets and glaciers. The later leaves behind the eroded materials in only restricted areas. The imprint of ice-sheets on the landscape is far more widespread because they advanced through the large areas during the Ice Ages. The gradient is more gentle and lateral (sideways) erosion has widened the channel. The river channel has also become deeper. Meanders and oxbow lakes are typical landforms found in this stage of the river

What Is Lateral Erosion? - Reference

  1. Lateral erosion is a concurrent process. This type of erosion causes the widening of a particular valley or stream channel. Lateral erosion happens when the level of stream approaches its base level. When it is is above the base level down cutting take places. Lateral erosion is usually happens in rivers and valleys
  2. GCSE Geography - Water on the Land. STUDY. PLAY. Erosion. the wearing away of the river bank and bed. Transportation. the movement of the load down the river. Deposition. the laying down of the river's load. Hydraulic Action. the force of water hitting against the bed and banks. Abrasion
  3. Fluvial erosion The main processes of fluvial erosion occur throughout the course of the river. These are outlined below. The river itself, however, will try to erode in different directions, depending on how far down the course you are. Very basically, rivers are trying to erode down to their base level. In most cases this is sea level, but it can also be the level of a lake that the river.
  4. GCSE Geography: Coastal Landscapes in the UK Key Ideas of this module The UK has a range of diverse landscapes Overview of the location of major upland/lowland areas and river systems. The coast is shaped by a number of physical processes Wave types and characteristics. Coastal processes: weathering processes - mechanical, chemica
  5. Glacial Trough - The other name for a U-shaped valley cut by a glacier. Pyramidal Peaks - Formed in exactly the same as an Arête only this time three corries back onto each other. Eventually the backwards erosion leaves a sharp pyramid peak. An example of this is the Matterhorn in the Alps
  6. Boston House, 214 High Street, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire, LS23 6AD Tel: +44 0844 800 0085 Fax: +44 01937 84211
  7. This process of erosion occurs where the power of the waves hits the cliff face directly and loosens the interior of joints and bedding planes. Paper 2 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography. Added to your Shopping Cart! Paper 2 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography. SKU: 05-4130-30218-01

Quick Reference. Usually of rivers; erosion of the banks rather than the bed. In a stream or river, it results in undercutting of the banks or terrace formation (Hanson et al. (2006) Geomorph. 76, 1-2). From: lateral erosion in A Dictionary of Geography ». Subjects: Science and technology — Earth Sciences and Geography When river enters in 2nd and middle phase after the Vertical deepening, it start valley widening by the lateral erosion. in simple term, it erode the sides of the river and less erosion of valley base. lateral erosion refers to the widening of a s.. GCSE Geography AQA Kerboodle Key Term Definition Abrasion rocks carried along a river wear down the river bed and banks Aerial photo landscape, they can either be (1) Vertical Lateral erosion erosion of river banks rather than the bed - helps to form the floodplai

Vertical Erosion occurs when rocks and other materials n the river bed are removed, causing the channel to become deeper. Lateral Erosion occurs when rocks and other materials along the sides of the channel are worn away. This causes the river channel to become wider. The 4 processes of Erosion Hydraulic Actio Vertical/lateral erosion is common in the lower course. A landform found in the lower course is What does the following refer to: stones carried by the river hit into each other, gradually making the rocks smaller and smoother St Ivo Geography - AQA GCSE Revision. How and why does width and depth of a channel change from source to mouth . Width and depth increases - initially due to vertical erosion followed by lateral erosion as the river moves along its coast Coastal zones are dynamic areas of the earth that experience the influence of both marine and atmospheric activities, also known as coastal processes. These processes involve different events that build-up, breakdown, and transport materials in these coastal zones. Waves, wind, and tides for example impact these coastal areas and change their.

Geography 2 U - get the basics for IGCSE and GCSE: Long

Erosional landforms - River landforms - AQA - GCSE

  1. Wind Erosion: In geography, wind erosion refers to the erosion of material caused by the action and chemical reaction of wind. Wind power: Wind power refers to the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as electricity, using wind turbines. Windward: In simple words, the term windward refers to 'towards the wind'. More.
  2. St Ivo Geography - AQA GCSE Revision How and why does width and depth of a channel change from source to mouth Width and depth increases - initially due to vertical erosion followed by lateral erosion as the river moves along its coast. St Ivo Geography - AQA GCSE Revision Describe what is meant by the long profile of a river
  3. Meanders and Ox-bow lakes Meanders are bends in a rivers course. Water flowing around a meander moves fastest on the outside of the bend leading to erosion and the formation of a steep river cliff. On the inside of the bend, water slows down leading to the deposition of sediment. This forms a gently-sloping slip off slope in the shallow water
  4. Ox-Bow Lakes - In the lower course of the river meanders can become so pronounced that they can form ox-bow lakes. In the lower course, the rapid lateral erosion cuts into the neck of the meander, narrowing it considerably. Eventually, the force of the river breaks through the neck, and as this is the easiest way for the water to go, the old meander is left without any significant amount of.
  5. YR10 GCSE Revision List Physical landscapes in the UK solution, vertical and lateral erosion o Transportation - traction, saltation, suspension and solution o Deposition - why rivers deposit sediment. Characteristics and formation of landforms resulting from erosion: interlocking spurs, waterfalls Definition of a natural hazard


GCSE Geography case studies and examples Paper 1 - Living with the physical environment. Module: Sections: - Definition of climate change. -Evidence for climate change from the beginning. Lateral erosion . Processes of transportation V-Shaped valleys and interlocking spursIn the upper part of a river, vertical erosion is common creating a steep sided river valley. Interlocking spurs form as the river has to take a winding course due to the highland areas that jut out. WaterfallsThe rock a river flows over is not uniform and waterfall and result after a river has flowed over hard rock and meets a band of soft rock GCSE Glaciated Valleys Glossary. Abrasion: erosion caused by rocks and boulders in the base of the glacier acting like a giant file scratching and scraping the rocks below. Angular Rock: a rock with sharp edges. Arête: sharp, knife-like ridge formed between two cirques cutting back. Aspect: the direction a cirque faces; south-facing cirques tend to be larger and more eroded due to greater ice. The Helicodal flow (cock screw like flow of water that goes through rivers) causes surface water to flow towards the outside bank which causes lateral erosion through hydraulic action. Erosion of the outside bank also takes place through abrasion; as the velocity is greater here the river is able to carry larger sediment which increases the. 1) a small area in the head land is eroded called a wave cut hatch, 2) more erosion takes place making the notch get bigger and causing samll bits of rock to fall off, 3)erosion continues till the top of headland collapses leaving a platfrom of rock. 19 of 145. explain the fromation of a... crack, cave, arche, stack and stump

With a few weeks left until the end of year examinations, you will find a bank of revision resources here that will help you to prepare for the big one! You will find the following items to help you on this page: 1. Knowing your exam paper level and target grade. 2. Rivers & Coasts (tested in May 24th 2016 exam in the SDME) 3 GCSE Geography Curriculum Overview 2020-2021 Core aims of the subject at Key Stage 4 The study of geography is about more than just memorizing places on a map. It's about understanding the complexity of our world, vertical and lateral erosion. questions, including mi Medial Moraine. Lateral moraines form at the edges of the glacier as material drops onto the glacier from erosion of the valley walls.Medial moraines form where the lateral moraines of two tributary glaciers join together in the middle of a larger glacier. Sediment from underneath the glacier becomes a ground moraine after the glacier melts. Ground moraine contributes to the fertile.

Due to lateral erosion, the river widens and the river water flows over flatter land to develop larger bends which are referred to as 'meanders.' The characteristic sinusoidal (sinewave-like or snake-like) flow of water is therefore exhibited after the complete formation of meanders at the middle course of river bodies In areas where vertical erosion is dominant - waterfalls and gorges are commonly found In areas where lateral erosion and deposition become... Saved by Peter Iverson. 18. Gcse Geography Rio Weathering And Erosion Water Cycle Plunge Pool Sixth Grade Earth Science Study Tips Hard Rock. More information... More like thi A concise knowledge organiser for the AQA GCSE Geography course (condensed into 20 pages). NB. Doesn't contain information for ALL topics, only information for the chosen topics where decisions had to be made, e.g. energy was the chosen resource for the topic 'The Challenge of Resource Management' Each topic is condensed into 2-3 A4 pages with blank pages for Issue Evaluation notes and. BSL Geography Glossary - Abrasion (rivers) - definition. Definition: Abrasion is a process of erosion which can happen in four different ways. The first type of abrasion is caused by ice or glaciation. As a glacier moves, it erodes away at the land surrounding the ice. This is a slow process

Geography Definitions. Abrasion: The wearing away, scouring action of a river/glacial load. Active plate margin: The leading edge continent is at a plate margin. Administration • : the management responsible for people living and working in a region. Aeolian: Relating to wind action.Named after Greek god of winds, Aeolus. Aerial photograph: A photograph of an area of the earth's surface. 1) In the lower course of the river the gradient is gentler than in the upper course. The river has more energy and the volume amount of water is high. 2) In the lower course there is more lateral (sideways) erosion.The channel is wide and deep.The river has less friction to overcome which means that the river can flow faster. 3) As the river erodes sideways, it swings from side to side. A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or a rock layer moves a short distance down a slope. Movement is characterized by sliding along a concave-upward or planar surface. Slumps have several characteristic features BSL Geography Glossary - Plunge Pool - definition. Definition: What is a plunge pool? A plunge pool is found at the bottom of a waterfall and is formed by erosion. As water drops over the waterfall then hits the ground beneath, it causes erosion, which forms a pool. This pool is known as a plunge pool A blog to support students at St Ivo studying GCSE Geography (OCR A) Monday, August 20, 2007. Coastal Deposition Landforms: Features and Formation. Material that is transported by the waves along a coastline is eventually deposited forming distinctive deposition features. There are four main deposition features that you need to learn the.

This blog is aimed at students at St Ivo School studying the OCR A GCSE Geography Course. The full Geography Department website is www.geobytes.org.uk. RSS Feed - Subscribe to Posts. Subscribe in a reader. Blog Archive 2010 (5) lateral erosion (1) lava (1) LEDC (3). A - erosion more important than deposition upper course B - headward erosion is an upper course process but less important than vertical erosion C - vertical downcutting towards base level more important than lateral and headward erosion 1 Question Number Answer Mark 1(b)(i) Full and accurate definition = 2 mark Attrition geography diagram. Detailed diagram and hand drawn explanation of the four main types of erosion. I explain:1. Hydraulic action2. Attrition3. Corrasion or Abrasion 4. Corrosion.. 6 July 2020 / in AQA GCSE Geography, River Erosion, Rivers / by Anthony Bennett The deposition of sediment forms a spit but its shape changes as a result of wave refraction. Refraction around the end of a spit curves it into a hook forming a recurved spit. As the area behind a spit is sheltered from waves and the wind, it provides the perfect environment for salt marshes to develop

River profiles - River processes - AQA - GCSE Geography

Different processes of erosion - River processes - Eduqas

Help your students master a confusing geography concept with removable vinyl decals! They adhere quickly to smooth surfaces—no sticky tape or damaging pushpins needed. It looks great framing a door, adds flair to a wall or window, and makes a striking statement on whiteboards. ©2016. Two 8 x 36-inch decals, two 30 x 5-inch decals, and one 8. http://imstuck.wix.com/imstuckgcserevisionMiddle Course of A River - Meanders - GCSE GeographyIn this video, we look at how meanders form and why they keep o.. This glossary of geography terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in geography and related fields, which describe and identify spatial dimension, geographic locations, topographical features, natural resources, and the collection, analysis, and visualization of geographic data.For related terms, see Glossary of geology and Glossary of environmental scienc GCSE Geography Coursework: Strand 4 - Interpertation of Data . A reduce in water will make the channel width narrower. This is because less (lateral) erosion will occur, in-order to deepen the channel. From sites 3 to 5, the channel gradually re-widens; rising significantly from 2.7m to 6.7m

Fluvial processes: erosion - GEOGRAPHY MYP/GCSE/D

Lateral erosion: This process increases a river's width. A large sediment load has to be entrained for this process to work most effectively. It is responsible in conjunction with the processes of slope transport and mass movement for valley widening, meander migration and river cliff formation Year 10 LC4 MTP - GCSE Geography King's Leadership Academy, Warrington - Students may confuse vertical and lateral erosion - Students get confused at how waterfalls create gorges over time - Students get confused about where the fastest flowing water is found on a meander (resulting in confusion over where erosion and deposition. erode sideways (lateral erosion) rather than downwards and the river begins to deposit sand and gravel. The lateral erosion means the river gets wider, the river valley gets wider and meanders begin to form. Meanders A meander is a bend in the river (Figure 4). On the outside bend of the river the water is deeper and flows more quickly. The. River Erosion is the river erodes away the bed and banks of its channel vertically and laterally. Vertical erosion is the downward erosion which deepens the river channel Lateral erosion is sideward erosion which widens the river channel There are four ways how the river erode the bed and the bank( EROSIONAL PROCESS) 1. Hydrauli

EXAMPLE STUDENT ANSWERS - GCSE GEOGRAPHY - 8035 PAPER 1 3of 41 Question 1: The challenge of natural hazards 1.1 Describe the change in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere shown in Figure 1. [2 marks] Mark Scheme One mark for idea of steady increase followed by rapid rise in CO2 levels/exponential rise. Second mark for use of data shown on graph or for data manipulation, eg CO2. snow melt, transported, erosion, V-shaped, avalanches, gradient, abrasion, lateral, bed Task 2 - Watch the video to above & right that explains processes in the upper course. Using this (& fig 1.11 on p.10 of the OCR B textbook), create a three part cartoon diagram to show the formation of a v-shaped valley and interlocking spurs The long profile of a river is a way of displaying the channel slope (gradient) of a river along its entire length. Therefore, it shows how a river loses height with increasing distance towards the sea. A river tries to achieve a smooth curve to reach its base level at sea; this is called a graded long profile A scar is left at the top of the slope where the flow began. This is a steeper section of the slope. - The overall impact of the slope: Scar, gentler gradient at the base of the slope and material may spread widening slope foot. - Mudflows: Rapid movements, occurring on steeper slopes, exceeding 1km/hr

River profiles - cross profiles and long profiles - River

Definition; Discharge. The sediment in a river. Load . Water wearing away river bed/banks. Erosion . The water in a river. Deposition. Lateral (sideways) erosion. Load is very small - dissolved or in suspension. Load is jagged with sharp edges. Saltation and some suspension Geography Department - Transition activities Year 9 going into GCSE Geography Activity · Create a spider diagram using your notes from Key Stage 3 to outline key river processes. · Research a recent flood in a Less Developed Country (LDC). Outline the causes, effects and responses of this event. · Revise the key words for Water on the Land on page 2, learning their definitions ready fo Fluvial/River Processes 1. The work of rivers 2. Fluvial Processes Three basic processes at work Erosion, Transportation Deposition Weathering does not play a significant role in rivers The effectiveness of these processes depends on the River's Energy level, it's overall shape and it's depth (Deep rivers more powerful than shallow, young rivers more powerful than old age Fluvial processes involved in river valley and river channel formation: erosion (vertical and lateral), weathering and mass movement, transportation and deposition and factors affecting these processes (climate, slope, geology, altitude, aspect). 1. How do rivers transport material? YouTube. Miss Alphonse

What is vertical erosion? - Internet Geograph

A River's Course. The course a river takes is split into three stages, the upper, middle and lower stage. In the upper stage, the river is close to its source and high above its base level (the lowest point the river can erode to 1).In the lower stage the river is far away from its source, close to the mouth and not far above its base level Geography Notes Form 2 . Form 2 Geography. Internal Land Forming/endogenetic Processes-Processes operating in the interior of the earth resulting in the formation of natural physical features or landforms. They are caused by earth movements. Examples of these processes are folding, faulting and Vulcanicity

Geography AQA GCSE PAPER 1 Flashcards Quizle

River cross profiles show you a cross-section, taken sideways, of a river's channel and/or valley at certain points in the river's course. A channel cross-profile only includes the river whereas a valley cross-profile includes the channel, the valley floor and the sides of the valley GCSE Geography- Bundle of 7x Comprehensive, Clear Notes **I got a A* in GCSE Geography after revising from these resources!** Save 24% An exceptional-quality guide of clear, easy to understand notes on GCSE Geography, created by a level 8&9 GCSE Student in accordance with the OCR, Edexcel and AQA syllabi as they're very similar A groyne (in the U.S. groin), built perpendicular to the shore, is a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore (in coastal engineering) or from a bank (in rivers) that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment.It is usually made out of wood, concrete, or stone. In the ocean, groynes create beaches, prevent beach erosion caused by longshore drift where this is the. Geography AS Level full revision notes. 1. H Y D R O L O G Y A N D F L U V I A L G E O M O R P H O L O G Y Geography AS Level. 2. Introduction Water enters and continually cycles around the earth through the global hydrological cycle, it is a closed system with no inputs or outputs. The hydrological cycle refers to the cycle of water between.

GCSE Geography- Key Terms and Responses

These geological formations appeared by erosion over time. In the upper course of the river, vertical erosion is more dominant compared to lateral erosion. While flowing downhill quickly, rivers remove maximum sediments from the bottom floor of the river channel than from riversides. This process is known as downcutting Surface run-off and throughflow cause erosion at the point where the water enters the valley head. Vertical erosion makes a river channel deeper. This happens more in the upper stages of a river (the V of vertical erosion should help you remember the V-shaped valleys that are created in the upper stages). Lateral erosion makes a river wider Corrosion geography diagram Erosion - corrasion - GCSE Geography - BBC Bitesiz . An illustrated explanation of rivers - weathering, erosion and corrasion. This clip can be used during a module on rivers. Students should make an annotated diagram to show how the process of. ation 5. Overdesign . Safety / Loss of Life The resulting erosion at the base of a waterfall can be very dramatic, and cause the waterfall to recede. The area behind the waterfall is worn away, creating a hollow, cave-like structure called a rock shelter. Eventually, the rocky ledge (called the outcropping) may tumble down, sending boulders into the stream bed and plunge pool below.This causes the waterfall to recede many meters. Scattergraph - used to show if there is a relationship between two sets of figures. Pie-Graph - used to show how one total is divided up. Tabulating - making up a table to compare two or more places. Annotating diagrams - putting labels on maps, graphs and fieldsketches. This gives more detail and helps understanding

Rivers and Coasts Definitions - Flashcards in GCSE Geograph

Erosion is the process where rocks are broken down by natural forces such as wind or water. There are two main types of erosion: chemical and physical. Chemical erosion occurs when a rock's chemical composition changes, such as when iron rusts or when limestone dissolves due to carbonation 3.1 Living with the physical environment. This unit is concerned with the dynamic nature of physical processes and systems, and human interaction with them in a variety of places and at a range of scales. The aims of this unit are to develop an understanding of the tectonic, geomorphological, biological and meteorological processes and features. Processes included are hydraulic action, attrition, abrasion, solution, vertical erosion, lateral erosion, traction, saltation, suspension, solution, deposition. A thorough and detailed worksheet is included so students can have all key words, definitions and pictures on one piece of paper, making it easy to revise

The River Valley GCSE Geography Revision Note

BSL Geography Glossary - Suspension - definition. Definition: Suspension is a method of transporting very fine sediment in a river. The sediment is probably eroded from larger rocks upstream and is then carried in the water. When the sediment is deposited from the water it is known as silt. About Us In this video: Characteristics of floodplains in the middle and lower course of rivers, and how this differs from the river's upper course. How the processes of sediment transport and deposition (during flood events) lead to the formation of levees GCSE Geography; GCSE German; GCSE History; Subjects I-Z. GCSE ICT; GCSE Mathematics; GCSE Music; GCSE Physics; lateral erosion. erosion of the sides of a valley. 17 of 51. vertical erosion. downward erosion of a river bed. 18 of 51. delta Sill, also called sheet, flat intrusion of igneous rock that forms between preexisting layers of rock.Sills occur in parallel to the bedding of the other rocks that enclose them, and, though they may have vertical to horizontal orientations, nearly horizontal sills are the most common. Sills may measure a fraction of an inch to hundreds of feet thick and up to hundreds of miles long

Chesil Beach, sometimes called Chesil Bank by locals, is an 18 mile (29km) long, 200 metre wide and 18 metre high shingle tombolo in Dorset, southern England. The beach is part of the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. The tombolo of Chesil Beach connects the Isle of Portland, a limestone island in the English channel to Abbotsbury, though it. Geography Chapter 2.4 external forces. 1. Wind, heat, cold, glaciers, rivers, and floods alter the surface of the earth. The results of weathering and erosion change the way humans interact with the environment. 2. Weathering is the physical and chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth's surface Can. 740623. mind_map. 2016-12-15T00:31:27Z. Created with Raphaël 2.1.0. River Processes and Pressures - GCSE Edexcel B Erosion. Hydraulic action - Force of the river against the banks can cause air to get trapped in cracks and crevices.The pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away Sediment cells. A sediment cell is a stretch of coastline, generally flanked by two conspicuous headlands, where the development of sediment is pretty much contained. Figure shows the sediment cell as the graph of a calculated system, with inputs (sources), moves (streams) and stores (sinks). • Inputs (sources) — these are principally.