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The plague impacted the economy of late medieval by

How the economy was affected by the bubonic plague

  1. Medieval people called the catastrophe of the l4th century the Great Pestilence. The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that took Europe by storm, between 1347andl35l (C. Warren Hollister)
  2. ing the significant impact of Black Death on cultural and Economic life of medieval Europe. The Black Death impacted the economy a great deal. There was a decline in the population of workers due to massive death, resulting to increase of labor wages, especially in the agricultural sector
  3. The Bubonic Plague also had devastating effects on the economy during the Late Middle Ages. With the drastic population decrease, the production of food and goods also decreased. This allowed peasant farmers to demand higher wages and increase the prices of their products
  4. Plague, Population and Economic Decline in England in the Later Middle Ages BY J. M. W. BEAN j'rom the appearance of the Black Death in I 348 to the Great Plague of London in i665 outbreaks of plague were frequent in England. The conse-quences of the first, and most devastating, of these epidemics - the Black Deat
  5. The plague had an important effect on the relationship between the lords who owned much of the land in Europe and the peasants who worked for the lords. As people died, it became harder and harder to fi nd people to plow fi elds, harvest crops, and produce other goods and services. Peasants began to demand higher wages
  6. Translated text available in: Italian, French, Spanish The outbreak of plague in Europe between 1347-1352 CE - known as the Black Death - completely changed the world of medieval Europe. Severe depopulation upset the socio-economic feudal system of the time but the experience of the plague itself affected every aspect of people's lives
  7. The plague impacted the economy of late medieval by. decreasing the population and making labor more expensive. How did Germanic tribes carve Europe into small kingdoms? Because Germanic tribes they had no written laws, they were mostly farmers and were governed by kings elected by tribal council

The Black Death's Economic Impact and Contribution to the Renaissance. Fresco in the former Abbey of Saint-André-de-Lavaudieu, France, 14th century, depicting the plague personified as a woman, she carries arrows that strike those around her, often in the neck and armpits—in other words, places where the buboes commonly appeared. 10 Ways the Black Death turned Medieval Society Upside Down. Natasha sheldon - June 29, 2018. Between 1347-1350, a unique and virulent form of plague devastated Europe. Spread from the east via the Mediterranean trade routes, within three years, what became known as the Black Death, Bubonic Plague or the Great Plague had swept across Europe In 1358, the peasantry of northern France rioted, and in 1378 disenfranchised guild members revolted. The social and economic structure of Europe was drastically and irretrievably changed. (Ed: D.S.) Courie, Leonard W. The Black Death and Peasant's Revolt. New York: Wayland Publishers, 1972; Strayer, Joseph R., ed. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. some well known developments in the late medieval European economy. In t he first part of the following contribution, an attempt will be made at quan- tifying mortality caused by t he Black Death

Black Death Plague Impacts on the Economic and Cultural

The Black Death had extensive effects on the lives of medieval citizens. The pestilence boosted the economy, had a serious impact on religion, and advanced science and medicine. The Bubonic Plague, or more commonly referred to as the Black Death, began in the early 1330's (The Black Death: Bubonic Plague) In the Late Middle Ages (1340-1400) Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit in 1347. The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75-200 million people and peaking in Europe in the. In fact, the impact that the present pandemic has had on the local economy pales in historical comparison to the effects of the Black Death, a massive outbreak of plague that devastated much of the European continent in the years 1347-1351. Trade cities and centers of pilgrimage like Cologne were especially impacted by the Black Death Also, there was a widespread belief that human agencies had been involved, and such scapegoats as foreigners, the poor and Jews were all accused of poisoning wells. The final section of the book.. 1. The varied impact of plague in seventeenth-century Europe. Apart from the Black Death of 1347-1350, studies of single plague wave have usually been limited to small areas, sometimes reaching the national scale but failing to provide a European perspective. 2 For the late medieval and early modern waves, the main source is still Biraben's.

The Effects of the Black Death on the Middle Ages « Phil

Plague, Population and Economic Decline in England in the

The short-term demographic and economic consequences of the epidemic must have been catastrophic; the plague, however, seems to have affected the population of the Roman empire in the east most of all in the cultural and religious sphere, in that it prompted or reinforced processes of reorientation that were of fundamental significance to the. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS Social: All around Europe, people were negatively impacted by the Black Death in a social way. People who caught the disease, abandoned their family and friends, travelled far and wide to escape from the environment they were living in and also stopped believing in Religion The Influence of Plague on Art from the Late 14th to the 17th Century. The second pandemic of plague during the mid 14 th century significantly affected European culture, the idea of death, and religion. During this time, many artistic representations captured moments of terrible misfortune, sarcasm, and—sometimes—hope Life during Europe's Middle Ages was barbaric, dark and short-lived. Disease was rampant, life expectancy was 30 years and social classes were governed by feudalism. In the middle of the 14th century Europe went through a swift change with the arrival of the black death

Effects of the Black Death on Europe - World History

The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s. Explore the facts of the plague, the symptoms it caused and how millions died from it The economy of Medieval Europe was based primarily on farming, but as time went by trade and industry became more important, towns grew in number and size, and merchants became more important.. Contents. Introduction. Trade. Recovery of the European Economy. Further study. Introduction Like all pre-industrial societies, medieval Europe had a predominantly agricultural economy attention; the related question of the extent of the plague's impact on the late medieval economy is also considered. In a chapter entitled 'shrunken towns', Platt reviews a number of the recent studies which have added their separate and often disharmonious voices to the 'urban decay' debate. Towns such as Wells THE PLAGUE AND ITS IMPACT. Adding to all this was the arrival of the bubonic plague from 1346-1348, unseen in Europe since the 5th century. The plague arrived in Italy by way of a ship infested with plague carrying rats that docked in Sicily unleashing the entire population of rodents on the unsuspecting Sicilian population who had no immune resistance to the plague

The economy of the Late Middle Ages can be characterized by significant shifts in its structure. For centuries Europe had remained an agricultural region that was critically dependant on crops and their sales 7 The impact of the plague was such that it put an end to the feudal system of economy that persisted in Europe for centuries, allowing the serfs to move up the social and economic ladder. He goes on to note repeated plague visitations well into the late medieval period, ensuring that wages remained high.. The Black Death simultaneously proposed an economically stagnant, and a depressed late Middle Ages (c. 1300 to c. 1500). Even if this crude and somewhat misleading portrait of the medieval economy is accepted, isolating the Black Death's economic impact from diverse factors at play is a daunting challenge

The Black Death may have transformed medieval societies in sub-Saharan Africa. By Lizzie Wade Mar. 6, 2019 , 12:00 PM. In the 14th century, the Black Death swept across Europe, Asia, and North. Ashley Ahle Professor Hunter Freshman English II 29 May 2014 The Black Death In Barbara Tuchman's work titled This is the End of the World: The Black Death, she describes the devastating impact the bubonic plague had on mid-fourteenth century society, economy, and religion.The bubonic plague was a vicious fast spreading terminal disease for which there was no known prevention or cure

Best Unit 8 Lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages Flashcards

  1. Start studying Western Europe during the Late Middle Ages. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. profound impact on manorial economy (feudal system) how did the black death impact the manorial economy? labor became scarce in some places tenants, rent payers, made gains as feudal obligations.
  2. A beginner's guide to the Late Gothic. Remaking a fourteenth-century triptych. This is the currently selected item. Gold-ground panel painting. The Medieval and Renaissance Altarpiece . Next lesson 14th century · A beginner's guide to the Late Gothic. The Black Death. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Email. A beginner's guide to the.
  3. The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s. The plague arrived in Europe in October 1347, when 12 ships from the Black Sea.
  4. ated over a period of three years without considering its' economy, Church life, and family life which was affcetd alot by the plague
  5. The Black Death in England p. 27); Robert Gottfried's well-known discussion of fifteenth century plague, although open to question, also argues that plague, travelling along the routes of commercialised late medieval England, continued to have an impact in the East Anglian countryside (R.S. Gottfried, Epidemic disease in fifteenth century England
  6. Economic History Review, 60, 3 (2007), pp. 457-485 After the Black Death: labour legislation and attitudes towards labour in late-medieval wester
  7. Medieval Europe's waves of plague also required an economic action plan May 6, 2020 8.31am EDT The Black Death (1347-51) Plague was a constant feature in late medieval and early modern.

Medieval Europe's Waves of Plague Also Required an Economic Action Plan. The Black Death (1347-51) devastated European society. Writing four decades after the event, the English monk and chronicler, Thomas Walsingham, remarked that so much wretchedness followed these ills that afterwards the world could never return to its former state. The late Middle Ages in Europe was a time of vast social, economic and political change. Catastrophic events such as the Great Famine of 1315-1321, The Hundred. Political and Economic Crises in Europe in the late Middle Ages: The Black Death and The Peasants Revolt This piece came to my attention while conducting research for a thesis on the Black Death. Unfortunately, Platt's work is really only designed for British Historians. While he does recount how resurgence of bubonic plague in late-medieval England affected the country's economic and labor systems, he does so without consistancy The Black Death Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries • Overview of Medieval Europe - Germanic/Asiatic invasions (400's-700's CE) - Viking/Islamic invasions (900's-1000's CE) - the High Middle Ages (1050-1300 CE) • the 1300's and 1400's CE: another age of economic depression and retrenchmen

The Black Death's Economic Impact and Contribution to the

During the 14th century about 25 million people died from a disease that became known as the plague, or Black Death. It swept through Europe and killed about 40% of the continent's population.. Historians think the Black Death originated in Central Asia. Rats and fleas spread the infectious disease.. In 1347 the plague hit Messina in Sicily and soon spread to cities all over the. The Black Death was a deadly pandemic in human history that was an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis, a type of bacteria. It peaked in Europe in 1348 to 1350 and was thought to have started in Central Asia or Mongolia and reaching Crimea by 1346. From there, the bubonic plague was most likely spread by fleas on black rats. This book traces, through contemporary writings, the calamitous impact of the Black Death in Europe, with a particular emphasis on its spread across England from 1348 to 1349. It charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effect on the late-medieval economy Plague and Economic Decline in England in the Later Middle Ages, The Cambridge Historical Journal 7 (1941-43), 23-41; J. C. Russell, British Medieval Population (Albuquerque, 1948); idem, Late Ancient and Medieval Population, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s., 4 The Black Death was the second pandemic of bubonic plague and the most devastating pandemic in world history. It was a descendant of the ancient plague that had afflicted Rome, from 541 to 549 CE.

10 Ways the Black Death turned Medieval Society Upside Dow

  1. ated by the cataclysmic epidemic of the Black Death which had a massive impact on China, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe in terms of the population, economy, and trade. The latter part was do
  2. The final section of the book charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effect on the late-medieval economy. Contents. Part one: Narrative accounts 1. The plague in continental Europe 2. The plague in the British Isles Part two: Explanations and responses 3. The religious respons
  3. The almost universal belief that it was an expression of divine anger at the sins of humankind did not preclude attempts to explain in scientific and medical terms; or to look for human scapegoats. The final third of the book charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effects in the late-medieval economy
  4. Scotland struggled to cope so much that it took until the late 15th century for economic prospects to recover after the initial outbreak. A whole way of life altered, and the trade and manufacturing progress that had been made after the Wars of Independence almost came to a halt. There is a quite dreadful footnote to this tale of the Black Death
  5. g from rapid, plague-induced demographic changes. Studying the economic impact of the Black Death in egypt The Black Death of 1347-50—and the cycles of plague that followed it— brought depopulation and change not only to Egypt but also to the Middle East in general
  6. 1320: Section 6: The Black Death. SECTION 6. Man and Disease: The Black Death. Beginning in 1347 and continuing for a full five years, a devastating plague swept Europe, leaving in its wake more than twenty million people dead. This epidemic now known as the Black Death was an outbreak of bubonic plague which had begun somewhere in the heart.

The Black Death needs little introduction. Caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the plague emerged in central Asia in the 1330s, spread west along the Silk Road, and was carried by Genoese merchants from the Crimea to Europe in late 1347. Once it hit the Continent it spread 4 kilometers per day and by 1351, 50% of Europe was dead The first time plague affected Western Europe was in the early Middle Ages: rom 541 to 767, there were no fewer than 15 outbreaks in southern parts of the continent. Plague then disappeared from Europe for some seven centuries but came back with a vengeance in 1347, this time by way of the Mediterra A longstanding debate in the history of the Hundred Years War has been whether the war had a negative or positive impact on the English economy during the fourteenth and fifteenth century. For a number of years many historians of late medieval The Black Death: The Great Mortality of 1348-1350: A Brief History with Documents (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2005), 107. 5 Rosemary Horrox, The Black Death (Manchester: Manchester Medieval Sources, 1994), 235. 6 Aberth, Black Death, 95. 7 Aberth, Black Death, 95. !

France - France - Economy, society, and culture in the 14th and 15th centuries: The long war against the English, fought almost entirely in France, benefited few but the captains and peculators; it injured almost everyone. Even the best-disciplined companies lived off the land, so that French peasants and defeated townsfolk in effect paid the expenses of both sides; and undisciplined mercenary. The world eventually recovered from the late-medieval crisis it spawned, but if there is one lesson we can draw from this historical experience, it is that the social, economic and political consequences of a major pandemic can linger well beyond the immediate impact An epidemic of the bubonic plague commonly called The Plague or (since the late 16th century) the Black Death killed millions in Europe and many parts of Asia between 1347 and 1352. The plague was spread and transmitted by rats and other rodents, who carried infected fleas in their fur, but this cause was not known at the time.. About 20 million of the 60 million people in Europe at the time died The Black Death in England (Stamford: Paul Watkins, 1996). Robert Palmer, English Law in the Age of the Black Death, 1348-1381 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993). Agostino Paravicini Bagliani. The Regulation of Evil: Social and Cultural Attitudes to Epidemics in the Late Middle Ages (Florence, 1998) Probably the greatest natural disaster to ever curse humanity, the Black Death's lethality is legendary, killing between a quarter to over half of any given stricken area's population. Though historians suspect a first wave of bubonic plague struck the Mediterranean area between 571 - 760 C.E., there is no doubt that the plague was carried west by the Mongol Golden Horde in the late 1340s as.

Usually, in the epidemic of bubonic plague that was suffered during the late Middle Ages, 40-70% of those infected died. Nevertheless, the plague also had other variants, it mutated and generated a different modality: the pulmonary plague. The problem was that the contagion of the pulmonary plague was much faster, as there was no need to wait. The Black Death left a legacy of economic and social consequences that in some cases would last for over a century. The extremity of the plague meant that the outcome would span over a long time period and cause upheaval in society in a very significant way. Economically, inflation, economic upkeep in towns and trad The Economic Impact of the Black Death Remi JedwabandNoel D. JohnsonandMark Koyama* August 4, 2020 Abstract The Black Death was the largest demographic shock in European history. We review the evidence for the origins, spread, and mortality of the disease. We document that it was a plausibly exogenous shock to the European economy an The Black Death: The impact of the 14 th-century plague. Papers of the 11 th annual conference of the Center fo r Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies , ed. Danie There have been three great world pandemics of plague recorded, in 541, 1347, and 1894 CE, each time causing devastating mortality of people and animals across nations and continents. On more than one occasion plague irrevocably changed the social and economic fabric of society. In most human plague epidemics, infection initially took the form.

John Henderson's major book on Piety andCharity in Late Medieval Florence (Oxford, 1994) includes a chapter on 'Charity, the Poor, and the Aftermath of the Black Death, 1348-1400' (pp.297-353). For other Tuscan studies, see David Herlihy's 'Deaths, marriages, births, and the Tuscan economy ( c. 1300-1550)', in. Life in the Middle Ages.United States: Running Press Book Publishers. 2009. 114 13 Knighton, Henry. The Impact of the Black Death. eds. Ross, James B. and Mary M. McLaughlin

Throughout the 1600s, multiple outbreaks of the plague -- a disease carried by flea-bearing rodents -- shook Europe, leaving thousands dead and entire communities disrupted. During the Great Plague of 1665, over 100,000 people in London died, according to the National Archives, while mortality rates in Italy during. This thesis concerns the religious impact of the Black Death, the plague that devastated Europe during the middle of the fourteenth century. It explores the effect of the Black Death on the Catholic Church and the religious movements that emerged in response to it. The conclusions drawn here are based on the research of both primary and secondary sources

False- The changes in the European economy due to the Black Plague weakened the existing feudal system of the European society. The Hundred Years' War began because the French kings wanted to drive the English out of Normandy From the middle to the end of the 14th century, Europe was struck with the devastating pandemic of the Black Death — the bubonic plague — which in the short span of 1348-1350 wiped out fully one-third of the population. The Black Death was largely the consequence of people's lowered living standards caused by the great depression and the. The Black Death was an infamous plague causing an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe. Its spread and impact is disputed, but it does give an insight into a medieval way of life The end of the Middle Ages can be characterized as a transformation from the medieval world to the early modern one. It is often considered to begin in 1300, though some scholars look at the mid- to late-fifteenth century as the beginning of the end. Once again, the end of the end is debatable, ranging from 1500 to 1650

The middle ages was divided into three parts: the early middle ages, the high middle ages and the late middle ages. [1] The manorial system is the economic, political and social system in which peasants in the Middle Ages economy depended on both their land and that of their masters to derive a living This book is situated at the cross-roads of environmental, agricultural and economic history and climate science. It investigates the climatic background for the two most significant risk factors for life in the crisis-prone England of the Later Middle Ages: subsistence crisis and plague. Based o The Black Death is the name later given to the epidemic of plague that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351. The disaster affected all aspects of life. Depopulation and shortage of labor hastened changes already inherent in the rural economy; the substitution of wages for labor services was accelerated, and social stratification became less rigid Meiss, Millard, Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death (New York, 1964) Nightingale, Pamela, 'England and the Economic Depression of the Mid-Fifteenth Century', Journal of European Economic History, 26:3 (1997), 631-56. Platt, Colin, King Death: The Black Death and its Aftermath in Late Medieval England (London, 1996 Analyzing the Past in the Present: The Black Death, COVID-19, and the Ursinus Quest May 11, 2020. Junior and senior history majors in HIST-475W have been grappling with the history of the Black Death, the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the Ursinus Quest core questions. Here's what they want the Ursinus community to know

Decameron Web Plagu

0:00 / 7:59. Live. •. The Black Death was the second pandemic of bubonic plague and the most devastating pandemic in world history. It was a descendant of the ancient plague that had afflicted Rome, from 541 to 549 CE, during the time of emperor Justinian. The bubonic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, persisted for centuries in. evolved. Interest in the Black Death began in earnest in the late nineteenth century as history shifted to a more empirical profession.23 One of the most significant early works investigating the Black Death's impact on Europe is Francis Aidan Gasquet's 1893 The Great Pestilence. Gasquet (1846-1929), a MO: The Black Death had a very different impact on western and eastern Europe - largely due to the response of the respective elites. In the west, the scarcity of population and the resulting increase in the economic capacity of the peasants meant that feudal lords were unable to enforce their traditional rights and had to engage in an open.

(PDF) The Economic Consequences of the Black Deat

Traditionally, in chronologies defined by European history, this era consists of the Late Middle Ages, from 1350 to 1500, and the early modern period, from 1500 to 1815. Obviously, no one at the time would have recognized their respective lateness or earliness, though they might well have sensed enduring continuity and new departures This was a century of calamities, beginning with repeated famines in the early part of the century and then culminating with the ongoing impact of the so-called Black Death beginning ca. 1347 CE. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Farming, Famine and Plague : The Impact of Climate in Late Medieval England by Kathleen Pribyl (2017, Hardcover) at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products Plague was a constant feature in late medieval and early modern life. Between 1348 and 1670, wrote historians Andrew Cunningham and Ole Peter Grell, it was a regular and recurring event

Chapter Eleven: Famine, Plague, War, and Rebirth (1300

bubonic. plague in the mid-14th century, an event more commonly known today as the Black Death. In a passage from his book titled The Decameron, Florence, Italy resident Giovani Boccaccio described the Black Death, which reached Florence in 1348: It first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumors in the groin or the armpits, some of. Indeed, the low death rates of plague since it reappeared in the late 19th century compared with the savage mortality of earlier centuries led many to question whether earlier plagues were even caused by modern Yersinia pestis (this was resolved by the discovery of plague DNA in the dental pulp of corpses in medieval plague pits) The second part of the book looks at the cultural and political history of Lincoln, again considering change over time and the impact of plague and economic challenges of the fourteenth century. These three chapters look at civic government, guilds and fraternities, and at chantry foundations Begin to contemplate the enormity of the Black Death's impact on the medieval world. As context for the harrowing events to come, take account of the state of medieval society on the eve of the plague. In particular, investigate the religious, economic, and political structures of mid-14th-century Europe The Arrival and Spread of the Black Plague in Europe. Melissa Snell is a historical researcher and writer specializing in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. She authored the forward for The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades. Some of the earliest reports of the Black Plague, or bubonic plague, show up historical accounts of the 1320s in.

A. Bubonic Plague In Renaissance Europe. The coming of the Black Death, when in just two years perhaps one third to one half of Europe's population was destroyed, marks a watershed in Medieval and Renaissance European History. Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) had been absent from Western Europe for nearly a millenium when it appeared in 1348 By Andy Mukherjee All upheavals leave their marks. Some fade away, some linger. Following the Black Death, the plague that's believed to have killed 60% of Europe's population in the second half of the 14th century, the realization that life is short, played a big role in shaping interest rates in late medieval Europe, stretching all the way to the Enlightenment Remember that when the plague struck Europe, the continent was undergoing a deep economic crisis caused by the decline of the feudal system due to a series of bad harvests and excessive overcrowding. In medieval Europe one of the main predators of the black rat was the cat, domesticated by the ancient Egyptians and introduced on the continent. The Black Plague, perhaps one of the worst epidemics in history, swept its evil across Europe in the middle of the 14th century, killing an estimated 20 million people. This major population shift, along with other disasters occurring at the time, such as famine and an already existing economic. The Justinianic Plague (circa 541 to 750 CE) has recently featured prominently in scholarly and popular discussions. Current consensus accepts that it resulted in the deaths of between a quarter and half of the population of the Mediterranean, playing a key role in the fall of the Roman Empire. Our contribution argues that earlier estimates are founded on a small subset of textual evidence and.

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action WINTER 2010 (Volume 26, No. 2) Population Perils The Black Death: A Catastrophe in Medieval Europe | The Potato Famine and Irish Immigration to, Millions of people in Europe perished in the plague that struck in the mid-1300s. Later called the Black Death, this plague upended feudal society and hastened major changes in Western. CHAPTER SUMMARY. The fourteenth century was a era of crisis. A little ice age led to famine, but a greater disaster followed: the Black Death. The bubonic plague was spread by black rats' fleas, carrying the bacterium Yersina pestis, while the pneumonic variety was transmitted through the air from person to person. It reached Europe in. Arriving in Italy in AD 1347, the Black Death, now believed to be the bubonic plague, rapidly spread throughout Medieval Europe, wiping out between one-third and one-half of the entire European. The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Recovery, 1300-1450. I. Crisis (1300-1400) Climate Chance, Soil Exhaustion, and Agricultural Decline . Although agricultural productivity had increased in the High Middle Ages, population growth had exceeded the limits of the agricultural economy by 1300

New research offers an explanation. In 2001, the Historian Maria Kelly published a history on the ravages of the Black Death in Ireland. In this book, she noted - as did the contemporaries - the uneven distribution of the havoc, which the horrible pestilence caused. While the plague did hit Ulster, the deaths seemed few and far between The Church was the most powerful political, economic, and cultural body in the medieval European world at this time, and as the country reeled from the devastation of the plague, much of the social and political criticism that emerged in its aftermath focused particularly on the Church's institutional inadequacies However, it seems likely that some of the plague waves immediately following the Black Death (late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries) affected mostly those below 12 years of age (Cohn Reference Cohn and Nutton 2008, pp. 86-87). The use of sources like parish books, unavailable for the Middle Ages, allows to measure excess mortality. The final section of the book charts the social and psychological impact of the plague, and its effect on the late-medieval economy. From the Inside Flap From 1348 to 1350 Europe was devastated by an epidemic that left between a third and one half of the population dead