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Follicular lymphoma malignant or benign

Benign lymphadenopathy is a common biopsy finding, and may often be confused with malignant lymphoma. It may be separated into major morphologic patterns, each with its own differential diagnosis with certain types of lymphoma. Most cases of reactive follicular hyperplasia is easy to diagnosis, but Skip to content. 0. Men Non-CLL clones have also been reported in reactive lymph nodes including follicular hyperplasia, without progression to lymphoma. 14 Detection of t(14;18) The t(14;18)(q32;q21) is the hallmark of follicular lymphoma (FL), occurring in more than 85% of cases Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the most common indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by diffuse lymphadenopathy, bone marrow involvement,.. Usually, even if a subtype of lymphoma is known to be indolent (slow-growing), it is considered a malignant disease, one that, if left untreated and unchecked, would eventually prove to be fatal. However, there is such a thing as a benign lymphoma, referred to clinically as either a pseudolymphoma or as a benign lymphoid hyperplasia (BLH)

Benign lymphadenopathies - PubMe

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a cancer that involves certain types of white blood cells known as lymphocytes. The cancer originates from the uncontrolled division of specific types of B-cells known as centrocytes and centroblasts Lymphoma is a type of tumor that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes, and when it is not cancerous, it is called benign lymphoma, pseudolymphoma, or benign lymphoid hyperplasia (BLH) Benign Follicular adenoma Malignant Papillary Follicular Medullary Anaplastic Lymphoma Metastasis *Nearly uniformly benign Table 2. Classification and estimated malignancy risk of thyroid nodules1 Nodule classification Ultrasound features Benign: • Malignancy risk: <1% • FNA not required Cystic nodules with no solid component Very low.

follicular lymphoma malignant or benig

  1. (Definition/Background Information) Gastrointestinal Follicular Lymphoma (GI-FL) is a rare type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that generally affects older adults. It is typically a low-grade malignancy lymphoma GI-FL is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that usually originates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, commonly in the intestine
  2. Lymphoma and benign lymphoma share many of the same symptoms. As well as lumps in the lymph nodes, patients can also suffer from fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss and skin rashes, among other symptoms. A biopsy of a tumor will confirm whether the lymphoma is benign or malignant (cancerous)
  3. Pediatric follicular lymphoma is characterized by the cancer remaining in the area where it first develops (localized presentation). Enlargement of the lymph nodes is the most common symptom. Overall, pediatric follicular lymphoma shows a generally benign behavior

Follicular lymphoma of the pancreas: a case report and proposed new strategies for diagnosis and surgery of benign or low-grade malignant lesions of the head of the pancreas JOP . 2007 Jan 9;8(1):44-9 Follicular lymphoma, low grade, grade 1 - 2 / 3, follicular pattern (see comment) Comment: This patient presented recently with inguinal lymphadenopathy. Histologic sections consist of a core needle biopsy of lymph node demonstrating complete nodal architectural effacement by malignant lymphoma Follicular colonization by malignant MBCs was observed in six specimens of pure MBCL and in 13 specimens of MBCL + FL. Benign MBCs did not express bcl-2 by immunohistological methods in 11 of 12 benign specimens Benign lymphadenopathy is a common biopsy finding, and may often be confused with malignant lymphoma. It may be separated into major morphologic patterns, each with its own differential diagnosis..

Lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy: benign or malignant

distinguish follicular lymphoma. LyMphoEpIthELIAL sIALAdEnItIs Clinical features. Lymphoepithelial sialadenitis is a benign lymphocytic infiltrate of salivary gland with parenchymal atrophy and foci of ductal hyperplasia with lymphocytic epitheliotropism. The lymphocytic infiltrate is the saliva-ry manifestation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissu Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive label-free technique providing biochemical tissue fingerprint. The objective of the present work was to test if Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to differentiate lymph nodes affected by different conditions, such as reactive follicular hyperplasia (benign), follicular lymphoma (low grade primary tumour), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (high grade.

Study of nuclear sizes in the centres of malignant and benign lymphoid follicles. Crocker J, Jones EL, Curran RC. The sizes of follicle centre cells in 15 specimens of follicular (centroblastic-centrocytic) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 15 specimens of reactive follicular hyperplasia have been measured Follicular lymphoma accounts for about 45% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 72 These are low-grade lymphomas, but have the propensity to transform to a more aggressive lymphoma. 72 Lymphomas are usually T1 isointense or hypointense (Figure 7A), T2 hyperintense (Figure 7B), and demonstrate enhancement after administration of intravenous contrast. Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma (PTFL) is a disease in which malignant B-cells (i.e. a lymphocyte subtype originating from the bone marrow) accumulate in, overcrowd, and cause the expansion of the lymphoid follicles in, and thereby enlargement of the lymph nodes in the head and neck regions and, less commonly, groin and armpit regions Follicular lymphoma, unspecified, unspecified site. C82.90 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM C82.90 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of C82.90 - other international versions of ICD-10 C82.90 may. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Western countries, with an incidence of 2.6 per 100 000 and median age in the 6th decade, 1,2 and comprises approximately 20% of all lymphomas. 3 It is slightly more common in females, and the majority of patients present with advanced-stage disease. 2 Generally considered to be an incurable disease, a watchful.

Follicular lymphoma - Cancer Therapy Adviso

  1. Occasional examples of follicular CLH may contain such a strikingly large number of reactive immunoblasts that they mimic the microscopic appearance of a nodular B-cell lymphoma of the large-cell type. 168 Similarly, Kikuchi disease—a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder that is much more often seen in Asia than in the United States—also comprises large atypical lymphoid elements that may cause confusion with a malignant process. 182-18
  2. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MALIGNANT AND BENIGN CUTANEOUS LYMPHOID INFILTRATES A Study of 57 Cases in which Malignant Lymphoma had been Diagnosed or Suspected in the Skin HARRY L. EVANS, MD,* RICHARD K. WINKELMANN, MD, PHD,* AND PETER M. BANKS, MDt Clinical and histopathologic findings were reviewed in 57 cases in which there had been a diagnosis or suspicion of malignant lymphoma in the ski
  3. Adult patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma whose tumors are positive for an EZH2 mutation as detected by an FDA-approved test and who have received at least 2 prior systemic therapies. Adult patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma who have no satisfactory alternative treatment options
  4. Primary Follicular Lymphoma of Breast is a rare subtype of breast lymphoma that first involves the breast. In general, the lymphoma involves other parts of the body first, such as peripheral blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other organs; involvement of the breast is noted much later (termed secondary type of Follicular Lymphoma of Breast)
  5. Abstract: Like other B-cell lymphomas, the development and progression of follicular lymphoma (FL) involves complex interactions between the neoplastic B cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Malignant B cells can manipulate the microenvironment by skewing the differentiation of immune cells, attracting regulatory T cells or suppressive.
  6. Neoplastic brain tumors may be benign or malignant. Malignant brain lesions may be primary or secondary, resulting from metastatic spread of other cancers. Primary malignant brain tumors make up from 10% to 30% of adult cancers and about 20% in children, but any of these tumors may occur at any age
  7. Stay in the Comfort of Your Home For After Chemo Care. Ask Your Doctor Today

Follicular Lymphoma Can Be Distinguished From Benign Follicular Hyperplasia by Flow Cytometry Using Simultaneous Staining of Cytoplasmic bcl-2 and Cell Surface CD20. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 2000. J. E . Anderson. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package A therapeutic vaccine for follicular lymphoma appears to be on the horizon. This vaccine, known as BiovaxID, is made from the patient's own tumor cells. The process involves training the body's own immune system to recognize the cancer. If approved by the FDA, BiovaxID will be the first therapeutic vaccine for follicular lymphoma patients Introduction. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common low-grade mature B-cell lymphoma in western countries, representing 20% to 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas 1.It is defined as a neoplasm composed of germinal center (GC) B cells, recapitulating the cellular composition and architecture of normal lymphoid follicle 1.It usually affects adults, with a median age in the 6 th decade of life 1 This lymphoma tends to be slow-growing (although not usually as slow as MALT lymphoma), and is treated similarly to follicular lymphoma. Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: This is a rare lymphoma. Often the lymphoma is found mainly in the spleen, blood, and bone marrow. It can cause fatigue and discomfort due to an enlarged spleen Research going back to 2004 indicates that the survivor's tumor microenvironment is the main factor determining overall survival time with follicular lymphoma, not the treatments taken. A healthy microenvironment arises from the creation of favorable gene expression in our healthy cells. 7

Is There Such A Thing As A Benign Lymphoma

  1. Follicular lesions, or growths, may be nodules which form part of a non-cancerous, or benign, enlargement of the thyroid gland, known as a goiter. In other cases, they may be benign tumors called thyroid adenomas, or malignant, or cancerous, tumors known as thyroid carcinomas. Follicular neoplasm arises from cells inside the thyroid gland
  2. The third variant occurs secondary to a wide range of benign diseases (lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic lichen planus, alopecia areata), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and malignant diseases (Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia cutis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), the most documented being mycosis fungoides 4)
  3. g a cancer or being detected by the.
  4. IV. Follicular Neoplasm or Suspicious for a Follicular Neoplasm. Nodules in this category are tumors. Most of these will turn out to be follicular adenomas which are benign. However, needle biopsy cannot distinguish between benign and malignant follicular tumors
  5. The two main types of malignant lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin disease) and NHL. The two types spread in different ways and respond differently to treatment. When lymphoma is.

Subtypes of Follicular Lymphoma Follicular lymphomas are divided into 3 types according to the ratio of small-cleaved and large cells: Small-cleaved cell type has less than 20-25% large cells, or fewer than 5 large cells per high power field.This lymphoma is rich in small-cleaved cells, which know how to voyage in the blood and are often found there as well as in the marrow and liver Follicular Lymphoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Proposed New Strategies for Diagnosis and Surgery of Benign or Low-Grade Malignant Lesions of the Head of the Pancreas Naohiro Sata, Akira Kurogochi, Kazuhiro Endo, Kunihiko Shimura, Masaru Koizumi, Hideo Nagai Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical University. Tochigi, Japan ABSTRAC Malignant thyroid aspirations can diagnose the following thyroid cancer types: papillary, follicular variant of papillary, medullary, anaplastic, thyroid lymphoma, and metastases to the thyroid. Follicular carcinoma and Hurthle cell carcinoma cannot be diagnosed by FNA biopsy. This is an important point Malignant = firm and fixed Benign (reactive) = soft, tender, and freely movable also hx: consider age, length of symptoms (>/<4wk), no infx hx. Follicular lymphoma Marginal zone lymphoma. what is aggressive non-hodgkin? Often symptomatic with B symptoms Tend to present with firm enlarging mas

Dec 30, 2020 · A roundup of some of the most read news and updates in follicular lymphoma in 2020 from CURE® Follicular lymphoma versus follicular hyperplasia used to distinguish AtLP from benign or malignant lymphoid proliferation. Neither is any single criterion available to establish evolution to. Malignant lymphoma is a cancer affecting lymph nodes. Three types of malignant lymphoma are represented in the set: CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia), FL (follicular lymphoma), and MCL (mantle cell lymphoma). The ability to distinguish classes of lymphoma from biopsies sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin/Eosin (H+E) would allow for more. Warthin tumor is one of the most common benign salivary gland tumors. It is unusual and difficult to diagnose follicular lymphoma within the lymphoid tissue of Warthin tumor. We present a rare case of a 69-year-old man with systemic follicular lymphoma initially diagnosed in a Warthin tumor. Lymphomas occurring within Warthin tumors are rare, however, follicular lymphoma is most commonly reported Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma 9758/3 ICD-O note : The first four digits indicate the specific histological term. The fifth digit after the slash (/) is the behavior code, which indicates whether a tumor is malignant, benign, in situ or uncertain (whether benign or malignant) ( WHO: International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd.

Malignant lymphoma, including FL, is usually noticed by the appearance of B symptoms and/or cervical, axillary, or inguinal swollen lymph nodes . After the imaging test, malignant lymphoma is diagnosed by the excisional biopsy of a cervical, axillary, mesenteric, inguinal, mediastinal, or para-aortic swollen lymph node Malignant neoplasms of mesothelial and soft tissue. C50. Malignant neoplasm of breast. C51-C58. Malignant neoplasm of female genital organs. C60-C63. Malignant neoplasm of male genital organs. C64-C68. Malignant neoplasm of urinary tract. C69-C72. Malignant neoplasm of eye, brain and other parts of CNS. C73-C75. Malignant neoplasm of thyroid. Follicular hyperplasia. Follicular hyperplasia also called reactive lymphadenopathy, is a type of lymphoid hyperplasia due to stimulation of the B-cell compartment of the lymph node 1).Follicular hyperplasia is the most common pattern of reactive lymphadenopathy 2).Follicular hyperplasia is usually associated with varying degrees of paracortical and/or sinus hyperplasia Category of Impairments, Cancer(malignant neoplastic diseases) 13.02 Soft tissue cancers of the head and neck. 13.03 Skin. 13.04 Soft tissue sarcoma . 13.05 Lymphoma. 13.06 Leukemia. 13.07 Multiple myeloma. 13.08 Salivary glands. 13.09 Thyroid gland. 13.10 Breast. 13.11 Skeletal system--sarcoma. 13.12 Maxilla, orbit or temporal foss Of these nodules, 84% (69/82) were benign (35 nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, 32 nodular hyperplasia, and two follicular adenoma), and 16% (13/82) were malignant (12 papillary carcinoma and one lymphoma)

Benign lymphoid polyps are uncommon lesions of the small bowel and the colon to a lesser degree that are mostly found in children. There are only few reported cases in adults in which the lesions were predominantly polypoid and described as lymphonodular hyperplasia. We present a case of a large benign lymphoid polyp in the transverse colon of a 64-year-old lady who was referred to our care. In conclusion, the present report describes a rare follicular lymphoma of the pancreas. Multi-cholangiography and virtual duodenography provided the information necessary for a laparotomy. Enucleation is indicated for benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the pancreas, even if the tumor is located in the head of the pancreas. Reference overt follicular lymphoma demonstrated follicular lymphoma-like B cells. Thus, although few patients with follic-ular lymphoma-like B cells of uncertain significance progress within the follow-up period, it at least precedes many follicular lymphomas. The extent of involvement does not predict the occurrence of prior or concurrent lym - phomas Follicular lymphoma stage II: Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps) Follicular lymphoma stage III: Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps) Follicular lymphoma stage IV: Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps) HER2 positive salivary gland cance

Follicular lymphoma - Wikipedi

Benign Lymphoma: What You Need to Know Symptom

Benign tumors of nose and sinuses HPV-related Malignant lymphoma salivary gland. Can be: low-grade MALT, follicular, diffuse large B cell A+C: lymphocyte only. Salivary duct carcinoma. Features in common with high-grade breast carcinoma A+C: without stroma. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma The ICD-10 code range for ICD-10 Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, hematopoietic and related tissue C81-C96 is medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). ICD-10 Code range (C00-D49), Neoplasms, contains ICD-10 codes for Malignant neoplasms, situ neoplasms, Benign neuroendocrine tumors, Neoplasms of unspecified behavior.

Differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodule

Severe benign lymphoid hyperplasia (LH) is unusual in the head and neck region, but the diagnosis of LH is of clinical importance as it may be confused with malignant lymphoma, both on clinical examination and pathologically. While the etiology is poorly understood, a number of previous theories exist, which are included here in the context of a literature review Like all adenomas, Hürthle cell adenomas are benign, but they have the potential to become carcinomas, which are malignant. Hürthle cell adenoma was first identified by Dr. James Ewing in 1928 (the cells themselves were discovered by Karl Hürthle in 1894), and most cases occur in patients between seventy and eighty years old one lymphoma). One patient had two benign nodules, and three patients had both a benign and malignant nodule. For the group of patients with benign nod-ules (excluding the three patients with both benign and malignant nodules), the median age was 50 years (range, 30-89 years). Fif-ty-eight (85%) of the patients were female Free, official information about 2013 (and also 2015) ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 202.8, including coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion

Gastrointestinal Follicular Lymphoma - DoveMe

The distinction between benign follicular hyperplasia (FH) and follicular lymphoma (FL) is sometimes problematic. We wanted to determine whether the expression of bcl-2 of FH was quantitatively different from that of FL, using surface CD20 expression as a discriminator of the various lymphoid compartments (Follicular lymphoma, Mantle cell lymphoma) or small lymphocytes with clumped chromatin (CLL/SLL) •A variety of benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms involve the soft tissues of the head and neck •Thus a common diagnostic dilemma occurs with respect to spindle cell lesions

Cutaneous Lymphoid Hyperplasia, Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

What You Need to Know About Benign Lymphoma Lymphoma

The genetic abnormalities of non-cancers of follicular origin (follicular adenoma and follicular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential) are also found in follicular thyroid cancers! The Veracyte test has the best ability to tell whether the FNA cytology is benign Follicular adenoma. It is a benign neoplasm, presenting as a single nodule, usually not greater than 3 cm in diameter. Some of them can produce thyroid hormones and consequently cause hyperthyroidism (functioning or 'hot' adenomas). The hystologic pattern may vary: macrofollicular (composed of large follicles filled with colloid. Lymphoma grows in the lymph nodes or any other area of the body that has lymph tissue, including the spleen, bone marrow, thymus, adenoids, tonsils, and stomach. When you have B-cell lymphoma.

Follicular Lymphoma - NORD (National Organization for Rare

  1. al mass.
  2. ed significance is well accepted. However, the morphological criteria have evolved since it was first described and data are limited and conflicting regarding its clinical implications and whether the extent of involvement predicts an association with overt lymphoma
  3. Benign lymphoid follicular center cells DO NOT show expression of bcl-2 oncoprotein whereas up to 85-90% of low grade follicular lymphoma and a lesser proportion of high grade follicular lymphoma show coexpression of bcl-2. Thus, expression of bcl-2 by follicular B-cells (arrow) is a feature of lymphoma and not benign follicular center cells

The diseases classified under the heading of malignant lymphoma have in common erratic proliferation of lymphoid tissue and an inevitably fatal outcome. Yet, within the group, and even within any of its subgroups, there occur wide variations in the rapidity and extent of lymphoid involvement of the various organs and in the survival time after onset of the first symptoms benign and malignant thyroid nodules, resulting in the categorisation of patients as operative or non-operative candidates (1-3). However, FNA has intrinsic limitations in distinguishing between benign and malignant follicular lesions (4). More particularly, evaluation and treatment of patients with follicular Follicular thyroid adenoma is a commonly found benign neoplasm of the thyroid consisting of differentiated follicular cells. It cannot be differentiated from follicular carcinoma on cytologic, sonographic or clinical features alone 1 Benign nodular hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, and LIP overlap histologically, differing in the extent and location of lymphoid hyperplasia. If a low-grade lymphoma of BALT is properly excluded by the pathologist at the time of diagnosis, subsequent malignant transformation has not been reported

Follicular lymphoma of the pancreas: a case report and

  1. RESULTS: The final pathological results are 3 cases of follicular carcinoma, 6 cases of papillary carcinoma, 1 case of papillary carcinoma follicular type, 1 case of malignant lymphoma, 16 cases of follicular adenoma, and 9 cases of adenomatous goiter. The malignant tumor were observed in 11/36 (30.6%) cases
  2. Lymphoma-associated follicular mucinosis (FM) in patient 39. This patient presented first in 1972 with multiple patches on the trunk and upper extremities. at presentation or during follow-up as the only distinguishing criterion to try to identify a group of patients with benign as opposed to malignant disease. Nevertheless, there was a.
  3. 14. Malignant lymphoma include all of the following except a. Hodgkin's lymphoma b. Reed-Sternberg giant cell lymphoma c. Mycosis fungoides d. NHL e. Burkitt's lymphoma 15. Regarding oncogenes a. Their products are associated with metaplasia b. Proto-oncogenes are involved with normal cell growth and differentiatio

Video: Pathology Outlines - Follicular-usua

Burkitt lymphoma - Cancer Therapy AdvisorHistopathology images of Follicular lymphoma by PathPedia

lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hy-perplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Tech Pro CPT. CD21. 88342.TC, 88342.2 Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic/colloid nodule/nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 1.. Malignant lymphoma of follicular center origin is one of the most common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It accounts for approximately 20% to 30% of NHL in adults, occurring predominantly in middle and older age groups.1 However, it is extremely rare in the pediatric population, the most common pediatric NHLs being lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large.

Lymphoma (malignant): NOS. diffuse. Excludes: benign lymphoma (229.0) 202.9 Other and unspecified malignant neoplasms of lymphoid and histiocytic tissue [0-8] Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma. Langerhans cell sarcoma. Malignant neoplasm of bone marrow NOS : Web Follicular lymphoma is the most frequent occurring form of low grade of Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and account for approximately 20% of NHL cases [].The clinical course of FL is relatively indolent when chemotherapeutic agents are combined with rituximab [].Nonetheless, a significant proportion of cases either relapses or transform into aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) [] Primary intraosseous lymphoma of bone, known in the past as reticulum cell sarcoma, is an uncommon malignancy that accounts for less than 5% of primary malignant bone tumors. Over 20% of patients with lymphoma have secondary bone involvement Most intraosseous lesions are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Lymphoma of Small IntestineActive Surveillance better than immediate surgery for lowPapillary thyroid cancer vs follicular thyroid cancer

Malignant lymphoma, follicular, NOS Malignant lymphoma, lymphocytic, nodular, NOS Malignant lymphoma, nodular, NOS Malignant lymphoma, follicle center, follicular 9691/3 Follicular lymphoma, grade 2 Malignant lymphoma, mixed cell type, follicular Malignant lymphoma, mixed cell type, nodular Malignant lymphoma, mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic, nodula Primary lymphoid lesions encompass a wide range of benign and malignant lesions. Benign lymphoid lesions of the lung include reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Malignant lymphoid lesions of the lung include low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated. The field of hematology (benign and malignant) is also rapidly expanding, including increasing our molecular/genomic understanding and the number of new therapies joining the pipeline . For instance, genomics has become an integral part of oncology, where it provides diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic values [ 7 ] revealed malignant follicular lymphoma (Figure 4). The lymphoma was diagnosed as clinical stage IV and the patient was administered chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclo - phosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone. Four months af-ter chemotherapy, the clinical symptoms had improved and a PET/CT scan showed complete remission of the lymphoma since the distinction between a follicular cancer and a benign follicular adenoma requires surgical pathology assessment for vascular and/or capsular invasion. iii. Currently, many patients with nodules in this category undergo molecular testing of the sample to further stratify the risk of malignancy and possibly predict biologic behavio